Quartz Hill School of Theology

Lesson 4: Second Declension Nouns


1. Verbs

ἀγω - I lead

ἀκουω - I hear

βλεπω - I see

ἐχω - I have

λυω - I loose, I destroy

2. Second Declension Nouns

ἀγγελος - messenger

ἀδελφος - brother

δουλος - slave, servant

καρπος - fruit

λογος - word

ἀνθρωπος- man

ἀποστολος - apostle, messenger

ἀρτος - bread

γαμος - marriage

δωρον - gift

θανατος - death

ἱερον - temple

λιθος - stone

νομος - law

ὀχλος - crowd

υἱος - son

και - and

ASSIGNMENT: Memorize the vocabulary words above. Note that list 1 are verbs, and list 2 are nouns of the second declension.

There are three ways of classifying nouns in Greek. The second declension (class) are the most frequent in the New Testament, so it is with these that we begin our study of nouns.

The following endings are attached to the noun root to obtain the endings of the second declension:

Singular   Plural   Case
-ος   -οι   nominative
-ου  -ων   genitive
-ῳ  -οις   locative, instrumental, dative (note the ῳ with subscript ι)
-ον   -ους   accusative
  - (none)   vocative
All that one needs to do to decline a noun in Greek, if it is a second declension noun, is add these endings to the stem.

For example, the stem of ἀνθρωπος is ἀνθρωπ- to which are added the endings of the second declension as follows:

Singular Plural
ἀνθρωπ- ος   ἀνθρωπ-οι
ἀνθρωπ-ου    ἀνθρωπ-ων
ἀνθρωπ-ῳ    ἀνθρωπ-οις
ἀνθρωπ-ον    ἀνθρωπ-ους
ἀνθρωπ-ε    (none)
To find the stem of any noun, simply drop off the nominative ending (the way it is listed in the dictionary) and add the endings above. (See how simple it is!)

ASSIGNMENT: Decline (or add the appropriate endings, as above) all the nouns in the vocabulary at the beginning of lesson 4.

Now, we must briefly discuss the meanings of these endings:

The Nominative case (or ending) is the case that the subject of the sentence is found in.

The Genitive case is the case used to describe ownership of something. For example, oi0kou a0nqrwpou means "a man's house" or "a house of a man".

The Locative case indicates where something is located. "oi0kw| " means "in a house"

The Instrumental case indicates the means by which something is. "oi0kw| " means "by means of a house".

The Dative case indicates the direction of something. "oi0kw| " means "to a house".

The astute reader will notice that the Locative, Instrumental and Dative cases are all the same in form. The correct translation can only be gained by means of the context.

The Accusative case shows limits. "oi0kon" means "the house" (only).

The Vocative (which occurs only in the singular) is the case of address. "a0nqrwpe" means "man!"

Accurate translation means that the translator must know these forms and their meanings.

ASSIGMENT: Translate the following sentences:

  1. ἀνθρωπος γινωσκει τον νομον
  2. πεμπετε δωρα τῳ ἱερῳ
  3. λαμβανω δωρα καρπου και ἀρτον

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Website: www.theology.edu

Quartz Hill School of Theology
43543 51st Street West
Quartz Hill, CA 93536

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